General Macario Leon Sakay 1870 – January 9,1907
Ladrone, Tulisan, Bandolero, Brigand, Bandit, Outlaw were all names used to define Philippine criminals in the early 1900s. Since the early American colonization of the Philippines for decades Filipinos allowed themselves to be brainwashed by the American victors in to thinking these men were also enemies to the Filipino people. Through the 1902 Bandolero Act, patriotic armed struggles for independence were deemed by the American colonial government as dishonorable criminal activities. Macario Sakay would be regarded as the greatest outlaw of them all. 100 years later many of these U.S. branded bandits are now regarded by Filipinos as Heroes and Patriots of the Philippines.
Macario SakayMacario Sakay was born on Tabora St in Tondo Manila in 1870. Hardly knowing his father, Sakay was given the surname of his mother. Just as both Andres Bonifacio and Emilio Jacinto were born and bred in the Tondo district, Sakay is regarded to be made from the same mold. The Tondo district in the late 1800s comprised of the working class and natives of the lower echelons of society. For those living within the area it became the norm to be skilled in several different professions. The early known adolescent years of Sakay were spent working as a barber, a tailor, and a stage actor for Komedya and Moro-Moro plays. In 1894 Macario Sakay joined the Katipunan alongside Emilio Jacinto. Initial work with the Katipunan were spent working closely with Emilio Jacinto and Andres Bonifacio. Gregoria de Jesus states Sakay also helped in operating the Kalayaan newspaper press of the Katipunan. Being an actor by profession and in the public eye allowed him to go unsuspecting from other districts and towns recruiting for the Katipunan movement and distributing revolutionary paraphernalia. From his dedication and sacrifices he quickly emerged as the leader of Tondo’s “Dapitan Council” of the Katipunan.
August 1896 marked the beginning of the revolution against Spain. Prior to and during the initial outbreak, Sakay’s movements in Manila are difficult to track. Although it is documented and witnessed by others he fought alongside Bonifacio in battles at Montalban, Marikina, and San Mateo. Sakay was also one of the leaders who retreated back to Balara with the Supremo after the loss at Nanka River. Interestingly enough, Sakay’s good friends and cohorts; Francisco Carreon, Apolonio Samson, and Alejandro Santiago separated with Sakay and followed the Supremo in to Cavite until his execution. At this point it is unknown where Sakay separated off to. Once the 1897 Tejeros Revolutionary Government was installed and soon after the death of the Supremo; Jacinto, Carreon, and many other close associates of Bonifacio(particularly the Katipunan members in and around the Tondo area) faded from the revolutionary limelight. Hardly any are mentioned or seen; few historians believe they were disassociated, and/or perhaps they cut themselves off from Emilio Aguinaldo’s Revolutionary Government.
One interesting notion of Sakay’s whereabouts state he may have accompanied Emilio Jacinto to Laguna and stayed with him in that region. In April 1898, with over a year of hiding in Laguna, Emilio Jacinto died of Malaria in the town of Magdalena. Orlino A. Ochosa’s book ‘Bandoleros’ makes note of the Jacinto death photo and remarks on one of the uniformed soldiers standing in the background on how eerily similar he looks to a young Sakay without the long hair. Consider also years later Sakay would establish his own revolutionary government in Laguna, and specifically near the same vicinity where Jacinto was documented to have stayed and roamed. Sakay was able to evade Philippine Constabulary forces on several accounts for months on end while in Laguna. Possibly Sakay’s time spent with Jacinto in Laguna could be how he became very familiar with the region, and the very reason why he established the territory for his own government. But that notion still remains inconclusive as there is no supporting documentation or evidence. Taking also in to account Pio del Pilars reference to Sakay, while Aguinaldo’s Revolutionary Government was busy fighting, del Pilar states Sakay spent that time on ‘recruiting missions’. Either way, Sakay’s rank and association is completely unknown within Aguinaldo’s Revolutionary Government.
Rise of Sakay
By early 1901 the Philippine-American War was now on the down slope as Aguinaldo’s Malolos Republic had been picked apart by American forces. With Aguinaldo fully retreated beyond the Mountain Province and nowhere to be seen, Sakay’s whereabouts re-emerge in the Manila area. Two interesting documents surface that are dated from early 1901. Both were turned in to John R.M. Taylor to be deciphered and later were regarded as material threatening enough to be classified under the Philippine Insurgent Records. One is dated Jan 6, 1901 Manila, the other is dated Feb 8, 1901 Manila. Both are official documents founding an entirely new form of government unassociated to Aguinaldo’s Malolos Republic. The title of the second document read, “With a view of improving and perfecting the organization of the Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan”, and goes on in to the establishment of a president along with a cabinet and council members. Both of these documents were signed “M.S. Dapitan”. The only known “Dapitan” in Manila in regards to the Katipunan was the faction from Tondo. And the only known and last leader of the Dapitan Chapter was Macario Sakay. In essence, these two official documents from Manila were Sakay’s early attempt of establishing a new revolutionary government under the Katipunan moniker separate from Aguinaldo’s government.
Once the United States annexed the Philippines, the islands and their inhabitants were now benefited rights under the U.S. Constitution. One specifically being, the right to assembly and free speech. The Federalist Party (Partido Federalista) would be founded in 1900 and lead by Pedro Paterno and Trinidad Pardo de Tavera. It comprised mostly of illustrados and members of the upper elite class who favored American annexation with an objective goal of achieving ‘statehood’ of the United States. Also at this time the civil affairs of the islands were redirected from the U.S. Military Governor-General and assigned to the Philippine Commission headed by Howard Taft. The Federalist Party were heavily favored by the Taft Commission. The Federalist Party were also detrimental at mediating surrenders of Filipino patriots to the American forces throughout the Philippine-American War. However, not all Filipinos shared the same sentiments as the Federalist Party, few nationalists decided to form their own party with aims at securing complete independence from American sovereignty. On August 21, 1901 the Partido Nationalista was established at Calle Gunao in Quiapo Manila(not to be mistaken for the 1907 founded Partido Nationalista). This was to be a legal running political party whose primary goal and aim being Kalayaan[independence]. General Santiago ‘Apoy’ Alvarez and Pascual Poblete were the listed Presidents, and Andres Villanueva as Vice President; all 3 were members of the Magdiwang faction who were heavy supporters of Bonifacio. Sakay himself held the next highest position as Secretary General. All other party members were former Katipunan associates from around the Tondo Manila region and the Magdiwang chapter. The party consisted entirely of Bonifacio supporters.
The Taft Commission became aware of the goals and aims of the Partido Nationalista and placed them under heavy surveillance, which led to all members being investigated. The Philippine Commission quickly became informed of the backgrounds on these individuals and viewed them all as radical agitators that could lead the islands to civil unrest and more resistance. Thus, the Sedition Law was quickly passed; outlawing and prohibiting these types of parties and associations. Within a couple months the Partido Nationalista was completely disbanded. Its members were arrested and/or fled from authority. In retrospect, this was an attempt by Sakay to associate himself with a political party on means to gain independence through a legal medium. In January 1902, Macario Sakay was apprehended and sent to prison.
April 1902 saw the surrender of the last overall commanding general of the Philippine Army, General Miguel Malvar. He would be regarded as the very last serious threat to the U.S. colonial government and the U.S. Military. American President Theodore Roosevelt officially declared an end to the Philippine-American War on July 4, 1902. As a result and a show of good faith Pres. Roosevelt would grant amnesty to those soldiers who have surrendered, been captured, been imprisoned, and who have not committed heinous crimes during the war. It is because of this amnesty Macario Sakay is released from prison. After Sakay leaves prison, rather than stay in Manila, Sakay heads for the hills with intentions on fighting for Philippine independence and continuing the resistance against American rule.
The Roosevelt Amnesty was granted to those Filipino patriots who also surrendered after July 1902 but only for a short time period. Within 4 months from the end of the war, on Nov. 12, 1902 the Philippine Commission passed the “Bandolerism Act” into law, ending all eligibility to the Roosevelt amnesty and officially making anyone who had not surrendered a branded ‘outlaw’ of the Philippine civil government. Regardless if any of these left over Filipino soldiers were in uniform and held a military title in Aguinaldo’s Army, they were no longer labeled ‘insurrectos’ or recognized revolutionaries fighting for Philippine independence, but now considered hunted criminals. And because they were regarded as law breakers, the duties of hunting outlaws now fell under the responsibility of Taft’s Civil Government’s newly formed police force, the Philippine Constabulary. By this time, U.S. Volunteer soldiers who fought during the Phil-Am War were mustered out of service and shipped back to the States. Much of the U.S. military force were also sent back to American. The left over U.S. forces stationed in the Philippines were also no longer directly responsible for cleaning up the last of the resistance fighters, they were however reassigned and directed their operations towards pacifying the Visayas regions and the Moros of Mindanao.
The Establishment of the Republika ng Katagalugan Government
On May 6, 1903 Macario Sakay issues out his first manifesto establishing the Republika ng Katagalugan Government on Mount San Cristobal in Laguna province. The manifesto Sakay under signs, “Ang Presidente Supremo”. The codes of the new government would follow closely the laws and regulations set forth by Bonifacio and Jacinto’s ‘Kartilya ng Katipunan’. This was indeed regarded as return and resurrection of Bonifacio’s old Katipunan. It should be noted, at this time the term ‘Filipinos’ in reference to all natives living in the Philippines was defined under the early U.S. colonial rule. While ‘Katagalugan’ originally meant the Tagalog people and their region, in truth ‘Katagalugan’ was now redefined to reference the new name and nation for all natives of the islands whom previously had no identity and went by ‘Indios’. Before the death of Bonifacio his official seal read “Kataastaasang Kapulungan ng Haring-Bayang Katagalugan”, leading several scholars to believe Bonifacio had already established his own official revolutionary government prior to the 1897 Tejeros Convention. Sakay’s government had its own flag similar to that of Bonifacio; a red field, multi-rayed sun, and the Babaybayin ‘Ka’ in the middle of the sun. Where Aguinaldo made ‘Marcha Nacional Magdalo’ the national anthem; Sakay on the other hand chose ‘Marangal na Dalit ng Katagalugan’, the song Bonifacio commissioned Julio Nakpil to compose in 1896 as the national anthem. Nearly all work Sakay used to build his new government directly paralleled the original Katipunan. The Republika ng Katagalugan would also drafted their own constitution with signatures from 90 members. Almost certainly, Sakay establishing Republika ng Katagalugan was in order to revive the old Katipunan and continue Bonifacio’s legacy.
Sakay’s Guerrilla Warfare and the Philippine Constabulary
While Macario Sakay made declarations of his new government, on the opposite side the Philippine Constabulary force at this time were still considered a newly formed organization. The Philippine Constabulary inspectors were developed and mirrored after the U.S. Texas Rangers. With many town and local law enforcement officers limited to their own jurisdiction, P.C. inspectors on the other hand were not confined to any one area and were given the authority to capture roaming outlaws who crossed different county jurisdictions and borders.
The duties of the Philippine Constabulary became increasingly more difficult when they were also tasked to deal with lawlessness in the Visayas region; particularly with rebellious religious sects like the Pulajanes and the Colorum. With a tremendous amount of armed revolutionaries still out in the field not willing to give themselves up around Luzon, the Philippine Constabulary found themselves in many instances out-manned and out-gunned. The guerrilla warfare and tactics previously used by Aguinaldo’s Philippine Army in the latter part of the war turned out less than satisfactory results; but Sakay’s soldiers provided to be much better fighters. Rather than attacking opposing large forces, Sakay’s men opted to ambushing small patrols and undermanned outposts and garrisons. With the P.C. force fighting in different regions and spread thin, the Philippine Civil Government requested and employed several native units of the U.S. Army’s Philippine Scouts to help with the cleanup of south Luzon. But even with the extra help of the Scouts, by this time Sakay and his soldiers had honed their hit-and-run strategy and guerrilla tactics, which significantly gave them the advantage. All the while, Sakay proved to be better organized with the civilian population which he tapped in to for supplies and critical intel. The populous were detrimental in providing hideouts and escape routes throughout the regions. Raids and stealing significant amounts of arms and uniforms became the norm when garrisons and outposts were left undermanned. Sakay’s men gained a reputation for dressing up and disguising themselves in Constabulary and Scout uniforms to fool public officials and other officers. Near the end of 1903 the Republika ng Katagalugan was a complete fully operational government with soldiers estimated in the thousands.
By 1904 the Republika ng Katagalugan government was organized as followed: Sakay acting as President. General Francisco Carreon as Vice-President. General Julian Montalan overall command of generals and over the Cavite and Batangas regions. General Lucio de Vega controlled South Cavite. Colonel Julian Ramos controlled Maragondon, Magallanes, and Nasugbu. General Cornelio Felizardo controlled North Cavite. Colonel Cosme Caro in Das Marinas Cavite. Major Giron in Silang Cavite. Colonel Masigla over Indang Cavite. General Benito Natividad controlled Santo Tomas and Tanauan Batangas. General Leon Villafuerte over Bulacan region. General Aniceto Oruga command of entire Batangas region. Colonel Andres Villanueva in Bauan Batangas. Colonel Pructuoso over Taal Batangas. And Major Emeterio Flores in San Pablo Laguna.
The establishment of the Republika ng Katagalugan in Laguna province did not sit well with its newly U.S. appointed governor, General Juan Cailles. Infuriated, Gen. Cailles himself formed and led his own armed party in collaboration with Constabulary officers in order to rid Sakay from his territory. Aside from local law enforcement, the responsibility of peace and order of the province also rested upon the governor. The next few months saw bitter skirmishs between Gen. Cailles and Sakay. By August the continued engagements with Gen. Cailles forced Sakay to transfer his headquarters out of the Laguna region. Sakay and his generals sailed to Rizal province and re-establish their headquarters in the mountains between Boso-Boso and Tanay, which they named Di-Masalang.
The Republika ng Katagalugan War
Starting in 1905 through to mid-1906 saw the bloodiest fighting for the Republika ng Katagalugan government. The beginning of the end started on January 24, 1905, when the combined forces Philippine Scouts 1904of General Cornelio Felizardo and General Lucio de Vega attacked the garrison of San Francisco del Malabon and attempted to murder then Cavite Governor Mariano Trias. The reports read Governor Trias was awakened by the attack and jumped out his window and hid in the river, all the while leaving behind his wife and children in the home. Gen. Felizardo and Gen. de Vega would kidnap Trias’s wife and two of his children. Mrs. Trias was said to have been physically abused and suffered broken ribs through the whole ordeal. This attack was regarded as a retaliation towards Governor Trias’s imprisonment of four Presidentes[Mayors] from his province and publicly vowing to persecute anyone helping any member of the Sakay Government. Another local legend has it that Gen. Felizardo was a compadre to the Trias family. The Trias family threw a banquet at their house and Gen. Felizardo showed up amongst the crowd. He received a plate of food, and before eating he gave a piece of meat to a wandering dog. And within a few minutes the dog died. An enraged Felizardo over turned the table and left. The attempted assassination on Gov. Trias and the kidnapping of the Trias family may have been a retaliation for his attempted poisoning. U.S. reports also stated Gen. Julian Montalan personally led this attack, but this has been proven to be incorrect, considering later Mrs. Trias gave a written testimony on Gen. Montalan’s behalf for coming to her aid and ordering her immediate release and of her children. Gen. Montalan personally knew the Trias family, as he served as a Colonel under Gen. Mariano Trias and Gen. Mariano Noriel’s command during the Phil-Am War. Regardless of the fact, to the Philippine Commission, a blatant all-out assault on an entire town and a Governor did not sit well. Days later, Mariano Trias was relieved of his duty as governor and Captain Louis J. Van Schaick of the Philippine Scouts would take over as governor of Cavite. The Philippine Commission approved the suspension of the Writ of Habeas Corpus in Cavite, Batangas, and parts of Rizal and Laguna; which inevitably placed most of southern Luzon under martial law. Furthermore, in March “Section 6 of Act NO. 781″ was re-enacted; General Franklin Bell’s old scorched earth tactic of destroying farmlands and placing innocent civilians into concentration camps to combat Gen. Malvar in early 1902 were again re-established in Cavite, Batangas, Laguna, and Rizal. The failure of P.C. and P.S. units to control acts of violence also led to deploying several regular U.S. soldiers to the region. A full-scale offense was now directed and aimed at dismantling Sakay and the Republika ng Katagalugan government. The following months saw hundreds of Sakay’s men being captured or killed. And every few weeks saw the death or capture of high ranked officers of the Republika ng Katagalugan government. In April 1905 General Aniceto Oruga, a former Colonel of Gen. Malvars now fighting for Sakay, and several of his officers were captured on Mt. Makiling in Batangas. In July Colonel Kmeterio Flores, Major Marcos Angeles, Captain Javier, Captain Luciano; whom made up of much of Sakay’s staff were all captured. Colonel Cosme Caro and Colonel Ciriaco Masigla were killed while out in the field. And in March 1906 one of Sakay’s most infamous commanding generals, Cornelio Felizardo, was killed by undercover native Scouts that claimed to have defected. Most of Sakay’s generals later reported as having only a handful of fighters left. Even with what was deemed as successful campaigns at capturing and killing many of Sakay’s officers, Sakay’s headquarter in the mountains of Rizal could not be breached. Sakay himself never budged and still showed no plans or efforts on surrendering.
Deceived in to Surrender and Arrest
By 1906, Brigadier-General Harry H. Bandholtz became the Chief and Acting Director of the Philippine Constabulary. He personally took over command and operations against Sakay. Gen. Bandholtz later stated, in order to catch Sakay and his men, it took “playing on the emotional and sentimental part of the Filipino character”. This became a interesting well thought out operation against Sakay with several major factors taken in to account. With 1902 marking the end to the Philippine American War, it also saw the creation of the “Philippine Organic Act”(also known as the Cooper Act). This law stated a national assembly or “Philippine Congress made up of natives” would be established on two major conditions; first a Census must be conducted of the entire Philippine islands, and second ‘law and order’ must be restored throughout the islands. In 1905 the first condition of a census of the Philippines had been completed; this was important as it figured on how many representatives would represent each province by population. But with Sakay and his army still out in the field waging war and several provinces of south Luzon under duress in early 1906, the second condition of restored law and order had not been completed, which meant the creation of a Philippine Congress composed of natives was now placed in major jeopardy and blocked due to Sakay. Gen. Bandholtz knowing the magnitude of this dilemma for the Filipino people devised a scheme to capitalize on the situation with Sakay. Bandholtz would employ a highly controverial figure as mediator with Sakay, one Dr. Dominador Gomez. Dr. Gomez was a physician turned politician as well as being a renowned leader who helped organize the first labor union. It is also believed Dr. Gomez was a friend of Sakay from his early association with the 1901 Partido Nationalista Party, and had also been jailed on several occasions for agitating and rousing assemblies against the U.S. colonial government. Dr. Gomez at the time was also awaiting pending trials for crimes committed. But it has also been determined that Dr. Gomez was biding and looking to secure his own seat in the new Philippine congress elections. To help persuade Sakay in to surrendering, Dr. Gomez would be given a letter from Governor-General Henry Clay-Ide that granted Sakay and his men complete amnesty if they disbanded and stopped their fight against American rule. Within a week and after several correspondence with Dr. Gomez, Sakay understood the grounds that a national assembly, which also would be fighting for autonomy through legal means, was being held off on his account and the assembly was now viewed by the majority of Filipinos as the new ‘gate to Kalayaan’. After conferring with his officers, Sakay finally agreed to end hostilities and surrender on his own conditions.
On June 14, 1906 Sakay and his generals came down from the mountains of Rizal and officially surrendered in Manila. Surprisingly after Sakay surrendered he was free to go unmolested and still armed. And interestingly enough, for the next few weeks Sakay and his men would be ‘honored guests’ at several venues around Manila; bands followed and crowds gathered and hailed them as “true patriots”. However these affairs would not go unnoticed. U.S. media covered the entire ordeal and began an outcry of the injustice being served. American papers reported on Sakay as a murderer of U.S. law officers and military troops with no criminal trial for his actions, all the while being allowed to be paraded around town as a hero with weapons made a mockery of the U.S. authority and the Philippine Commission. The U.S. colonial government looked foolish and were criticized on how they handled the Sakay situation. Many U.S. soldiers and politicians agreed, this was not the message they wanted to send out to others still holding out or other deemed ‘outlaws’ fighting against U.S. authority such as the case with the on going battles with the Pulajanes and Moros. In July 1906, Acting Governor of Cavite, Louis J. Van Schaick, invited Sakay and his men to a banquet. Sakay accepted, and on July 17 Sakay and his men entered Cavite and were greeted by music bands playing and a festival made in their honor. Surprisingly, both Filipina and American women as well as diplomats were present and festivities went on as usual. Gen. Leon Villafuerte himself later stated he also had the opertunity to dance with Gov. Van Schaick’s daughter. But the atmosphere changed just prior to mid-night when several heavily armed units of Philippine Constabulary officers arrived and began to surround the building. Sensing danger Sakay’s men drew their pistols, but Dr. Gomez intervened and convinced them to lay down their arms. Afterwards Sakay and his men were handed legal documents to sign on the spot. Dr. Gomez read the document to them and again assured they were nothing more than papers needed in accordance to help establish the national assembly and could not be used against them in a court of law. Gen. Julian Montalan himself was illiterate and could not understand the document. Placed in this predicament Sakay and his men eventually signed the papers. But the papers were just the opposite of what Dr. Gomez stated, as it made an agreement for Sakay and his men to surrender ‘unconditionally’ and face trial for their actions. At that point, Sakay and his men were taken in to custody and arrested for ‘brigandage’ under the 1902 Bandolerismo Act. The leaders of the Republika ng Katagalugan government would only enjoy a little over a month of freedom. As Gen. Bandholtz mentioned, he played well on Sakay’s Filipino character by making him feel accountable for he was in the way of the creation of the Philippine Congress that would legally fight for self-government.
Trial and Execution
The Trial of Sakay, Julian Montalan, Lucio de Vega, and Leon Villafuerte took place within days of their arrest in Cavite at the Court of 1st Instance of the 6th District with Judge Ignacio Villamor presiding. The lawyers representing Sakay and his men were Felipe Buencamino, Julian Gerona(ex-Guam exile), and a young fresh out of law school lawyer on his first case, one Ramon Diokno. Ramon Diokno being the son of General Ananias Diokno who fought in the Phil-Am War under Aguinaldo, and who would later be the father of famed Jose ‘Pepe’ Diokno. Throughout the trial Sakay’s patriotism went unchallenged. While it was no question Sakay’s ideals and actions were patriotic and his fighting for independence were acknowledged by everyone, his men were still viewed as committing atrocities and heinous crimes, not only towards U.S. authority, but against the civilian population. They were still defined as criminals and fell under the 1902 Bandolerismo Act. Organized criminal groups and true outlaws who were living on the outskirts and preying on society were also grouped under and associated to the Republika ng Katagalugan. One provincial judge reported to the Philippine Commission, within one year’s time he had personally sentenced an estimated 300 men stating to have belonged to Sakay and his government. Sakay being the president and heading the Republika ng Katagalugan was held responsible for all their actions. The most damaging to Sakay’s defense came when the letter by Governor-General Clay-Ide granting Sakay and his men amnesty mysteriously vanished. Dr. Gomez also was nowhere to be found and gave no supporting testimony. Since the U.S. annexation of the Philippines, the Sakay court case turned out to be the trial of the decade. A strange turn of events occurred during the middle of the trial when Macario Sakay and company decided to change their ‘Not-Guilty’ plea to ‘Guilty'; explaining that they took responsibility for the charges brought against them, but their acts were done from a patriotic motive and in defense of the rights of the people of their country. There after all four were handed the death sentence by Judge Villamor, but Sakay would appeal the verdict to the Supreme Court of the Philippines. Nearly a year later, on July 26, 1907, the Supreme Court confirms with the lower courts judgment of the death sentence of Sakay, Julian Montalan, Lucio de Vega, and Leon Villafuerte. The execution scheduled on September 13, 1907.
Interestingly enough, on the day prior to the scheduled execution with mere hours to go, only luck would have it for Julian Montalan and Leon Villafuerte; both were saved by Governor-General James Smith who changed their sentencing to life imprisonment. Gov-Gen. Smith pointed out Leon Villafuerte was spared because of his intellect and being a promising young youth who he believed got mixed up and misled by a bad crowd, and Julian Montalan spared for showing compassion and coming to the aid of Mrs. Trias and her children during their kidnapping.
On the morning of Friday the 13th of Sept 1907 Macario Sakay and Lucio de Vega ascended the scaffold at Bilibid Prison. As the nooses was placed around their necks, Sakay resounded his last parting words: ”Death comes to all of us sooner or later, so I will face the Lord Almighty calmly. But I want to tell you that we were not bandits and robbers, as the Americans have accused us, but members of the revolutionary force that defended our mother country, Filipinas! Farewell! Long live the republic and may our independence be born in the future! Farewell! Long live Filipinas!”
The fall of Sakay’s Republika ng Katagalugan Government was regarded by the United States to be the absolute last of the great resistance fighting for a independent Philippines. Peace and tranquility was considered fully restored; completeing the second condition of the 1902 Cooper Act. The Philippine Commission and U.S. Government now approved the establishment of a national government assembly made up of Filipinos. 1907 should be best remembered for those two great events in Philippine history. While the Supreme Court confirmed the death sentence of Sakay on July 26, four days later, the first election of the Philippine Congress took place in Manila on July 30th. With the execution of Macario Sakay on September 13, in 1907, his death closed the book on the Republika ng Katagalugan Government and marked the end to the Katipunan armed struggle for Kalayaan; but on the other hand, it gained way and allowed for the Philippine Congress to be born.
Author, Kevin Perez
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